The occipital lobe is the lobe of the cerebral cortex that receives and analyzes visual information, and is needed for recognition of what is being seen. Damage to the occipital lobes can result in a person being able to see object, but not being able to recognize them. The corpus callosum is a bundle of white matter that joins the two cerebral hemispheres of the cerebrum of the brain. It sends messages from one cerebral hemisphere to the other, telling each half what the other is doing. Scientists think that epilepsy is caused by an overload of neurological activities, so they cut the corpus callosum to cut the communication of one hemisphere to the other. This would prevent the seizures from travelling from one hemisphere to the other. The frontal lobe is the lobe of the cerebral cortex that integrates information from other parts of the brain and controls reasoning, critical thinking, memory, and personality. Damage to the frontal lobe would affect the way the brain processes and all those things. Damage to the occipital lobe would interfere with parking a car since the occipital lobe receives and analyzes visual information. While parking a car one needs to look all around the vehicule and in the mirrors and controlling the steering wheel and pedals, which is receiving the visual information of the surroundings of the car then following through with the correct movements to park the car. The pons serve as a relay centre between the neurons of the right and left hemispheres of the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and rest of the brain. This is why Pons is the Latin word for bridge because it is connecting the two sides (hemispheres) of the bridge (brain).The medulla oblongata is in the middle of the olivary body, which is a pair of oval structures that work in the areas of motor learning function and auditory perception. It sits at the base of the brainstem, where it connects the spinal cord and the brain. The olfactory bulb are spheres of nerve tissue that pass information to other parts of the brain. It is the neutral structure in the forebrain involved in the sense of smell. It is larger in a sheep brain than in a human brains because it allows the sheep to have the stronger sense of smell. For sheep, and most animals, that is necessary for survival, but humans can get food very easily and do not need to hunt for their food. Optic ChiasmHal of the nerve fibres from retina cross over to the opposite side of the brain and the other half of the nerve fibres travel to the same side of the brain. This allows each half of the brain to receive signals from the visual fields of both eyes.The cerebral cortex is a thin outer covering of grey matter, consisting of cell bodies, that covers each cerebral hemisphere of the brain. It is responsible for language, memory, personality, conscious thought, and other activities that are associated with thinking and feeling.The hypothalamus helps to regulate the body’s internal environment and certain aspects of behavior. It also contains neurons that control blood pressure, heart rate, body temperature, and basic drives and emotions. Damage to the hypothalamus can cause a person to display unusual or violent behavior. The hypothalamus also links the nervous and endocrine system and coordinates the actions of the pituitary gland, by producing and regulating the release of hormones. Overall, damage to the hypothalamus can cause a lot of negative effects by changing the normal functions that are listed, which impacts the whole body.The cerebellum is involved in the unconscious coordination of posture, reflexes, body movements, fine, voluntary motor skills, like riding a bike. There is a specific nerve cell called the molecular layer interneuron that is used in motor skills memory. Once a person learns a specific motor skill, the molecular layer interneuron receives the electrical signal and transforms it to be stored in memory in other parts of the brain. Kidney Dissection Lab QuestionsThe kidneys are essential for homeostasis of the body’s extracellular fluids. Kidneys are used for the regulation of extracellular fluid volume and ensure a substantial amount of plasma to keep blood flowing to organs. They regulate osmolarity, which keep extracellular fluid from becoming too dilute or concentrated with the solutes carried in the filtrate. Kidneys regulate the ion concentration and maintaining a constant levels of ions,such as sodium, potassium and calcium. They regular pH by preventing blood from being too acidic or basic by regulating ions. The kidneys filter out a variety of water-soluble waste products into the urine to be excreted. The kidneys produce erythropoietin, which stimulates red blood cells synthesis, and renin,which controls salt and water balance and blood pressure. They are also involved in regulating calcium and glucose levels in plasma.Blood flows to the kidney through the right and left renal arteries. Inside the kidney are arterioles where the blood flows into and continues to vessels called the Glomerulus, which are located in the nephrons. Nephrons are responsible for filtering blood. Blood flows into arterioles which coil around the nephrons and connect to a series of veins, leading to the renal vein. The renal artery is a blood vessel that originates from the aorta and delivers oxygenated blood to the kidneys. It splits into a fine network of capillaries (glomerulus) within the Bowman’s capsule of the nephron. The renal vein is a blood vessel that drains from the kidney, carrying deoxygenated blood. It returns to the body the solutes and water reabsorbed by the kidney.The Bowman’s capsules and glomeruli are a part of a nephron. The Bowman’s capsule is at the top of each nephron and acts as a filtration structure. It also surrounds the glomerulus. The glomerulus is a fine network of capillaries that arise from the renal artery. The walls of the glomerulus act as a filtration device. The majority of water reabsorption occurs in the loop of Henle, which is in the proximal tube. The loop of Henle is a tubular portion of the nephron thats main function is to reabsorb water and ions from the glomerular filtrate. As the loop of Henle dives downward, it encounters a more salty environment, where water diffuses from the filtrate into the capillaries by osmosis. Urine goes to the collecting duct then is released into ureters. From the ureters, urine is moved by the contractions of smooth muscle tissue to the urinary bladder where it is temporarily stored. Urine then exits the body through a tube called the urethra.