Shigella and methods This study was performed in cooperation


Shigella is a facultative intracellular enteric pathogen which
remains an important public health threat responsible for almost 165 million
cases of di­arrhea annually. The main aims of current survey were to  identify Shigella spp. isolated from
diarrheal patients by biochemical tests, detect the ipaH
gene using PCR and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles by disk


and methods

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This study was performed in cooperation with Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran during
September 2015 to August 2016. Bacteria identified as Shigella by their morphological and
biochemical features were tested for antigen-antibody reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the
Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method. DNA was extracted from Shigella colonies
by the boiling method and PCR ampli?cation was performed using a thermal gradient cycler to detect ipaH gene.







The Shigella strains were isolated from 522 patients with
various diarrhea, including bloody diarrhea (3.06 %), mucoid plus bloody
diarrhea (1.9%), mucoid diarrhea (3.2%), and watery diarrhea (3.2%). Overall 69
(13.21%) isolates were positive for Shigella spp, of which 34 (49.28%)
serotypes were identified as S. flexneri, 22 (31.9%) S. sonnei, 9
(13%) S.boydii, and 4 (5.8%) S. dysenteria.

Antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed that the highest
resistance percentage was related to ampicillin (82%) and
trimethoprim-sulfamethox­azole (77%), and ciprofloxacin  and ceftriaxone were the best antibiotics
against Shigella isolates.




We conclude that Shigella spp. can be considered as an
etiological agent of diarrhea with a high level of antibiotic resistance in
Ahvaz, Iran. Since the drug resistance pattern of Shigella differs
geographically and over time within a country, 
continuous and regular surveillance program is necessary.

Keywords: Shigella, diarrhea,
resistance, Iran







Shigella species are facultative  intracellular gram-negative pathogens
that cause shigellosis, which remains a significant public health concern. Shigella
spp. was adopted as a genus of family Enterobacteriaceae in the 1950s and serogrouped
into four species: subgroup A (Shigella dysenteriae), subgroup B (Shigella
flexneri), subgroup C (Shigella boydii) and subgroup D (Shigella
sonnei) (1, 2).  These enteric bacteria are in charge of
almost 165 million cases of di­arrhea annually, which 163 million are in
developing countries and 1.5 million in developed countries (3, 4). The
most common symptom of shigellosis are light watery diarrhea, vomiting,
fever, tenesmus, headache


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