Introduction device is usually called the initiator which uses

Introduction

            Near Field Communication (NFC) short
range wireless connectivity technology that allows simple and safe two-way
interactions between NFC
tag and electronic devices. The first device is usually called the initiator
which uses magnetic induction to create a radio-wave field that the target
(second device) can detect and access, permitting small amounts of data to be
transferred wirelessly over a relatively short distance. In NFC’s case, the
distance in general must be less than 4 inches. Examples of NFC-enabled devices
include smartphones, digital cameras, televisions, and terminals. Credit cards,
tickets, and NFC tags are examples of objects that also use NFC technology.

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Types
of NFC Modes

1.  Active Mode

            In active mode, both devices with
NFC chip generates an electromagnetic field and exchange data.

 

2.  Passive Mode

            In passive mode, there is only one
active device and the other uses that field to exchange information.

Modes
of operation

            For
successful communications, the devices or objects touch or are placed within an
inch or two of each other. For example, you can touch two NFC-enabled phones
together to transfer contacts, touch an NFC-enabled phone to an NFC tag to
display a map, or hold an NFC-enabled phone near a parking meter to pay for
parking. Contactless payment, such as the parking meter example, is a popular
use of NFC technology. Other uses of NFC technology include sharing contacts or
photos, downloading apps, and gaining access or admittance

           

 

1.   Peer to peer mode

            In peer to peer mode both NFC able
devices in active mode then we can communicate or transfer information between
two devices. If anyone device is inactive during communication then connection
is loss. In other hand if distance is increase between devices from 4cm then
may be connection is lost or may transfer speed is down.

 

2.   Read/Write mode

            In read/write mode one way
communication through NFC tag.

NFC
Tag:   Tag
that contains a chip and an antenna that contains information to be
transmitted. NFC tag is basically a chip which can store commands store by a user.
Whenever NFC tag is near NFC device then this NFC tag is connect with NFC
device and after this command is execute in NFC device which store in NFC tag chip.
An application use for this operation name is “Trigger – Task Launcher” easily
download from Play Store. NFC tags are classified into 4 types according to
signaling, data transfer rates and memory capacity. Types 1 and 2 work
at 106 kbps, store up to 96 bytes and 48 bytes, respectively, and can be
expanded to store up to 2 kb of data. Type 3 (FeliCa) works at 212 kbps
and can store up to 1 Mb. Type 4 operates at 424 kbps and can store 32
kb. Tag Types 1 and 2 are manufactured as rewriteable but can be locked by the
user to become read-only whilst Types 3 and 4 are set as either rewriteable or
read-only.  

3.   Card emulator mode

            NFC Card Emulation mode, allows the NFC-handset behave as a            standard Smartcard. NFC tag is
physically appearance like following    figure.

                                   

NFC
tag can be used in dark, dirty, and busy environments in which QR codes could
be difficult to read. Users must have an NFC-enabled device in order to read an
NFC tag. NFC tag store up to 1Mb and two way interactive.

 

NFC vs.
Other Wireless Technologies

            NFC
is a wireless information transfer technology of a short-range radio frequency
communication protocol operating on the 13.56 MHz frequency, with data
transfers of up to 424 kilobits/sec almost. NFC communication is started when
two NFC compatible devices are brought within close range, around 4
centimeters. Because the transmission range is very short, NFC-based
transaction is naturally secure Comparison of NFC to other short-range
communication technologies is provided in the following Figure

           

 

Advantage
of NFC

·       
High facility to
the user, because the data exchange is done by bringing two mobile together.

·       
Reduces cost of electronic
issuance.

·       
Secure
communication.

·       
No special
software.

·       
No manual
configuration and settings.

·       
No search and
pair procedure.

Disadvantage
of NFC

·       
The system has
the limitations that it can be operate only with devices under a short range
i.e. around 4cm.

·       
The data transfer
rate is very less at about 106kbps, 212kbps and 412kbps.

Conclusion

            Mobile
phone are the primary target for NFC and after this NFC will be implemented in
most handheld devices. Even though NFC have the shortage range among radio
frequency technologies, combining them with other existing technologies like
Bluetooth or Infrared can increase its range of application.  

  

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