Holoprosencephaly that 1 out of 250 embryos aborted worldwide

Holoprosencephaly is a birth defect in the brain. It happens when the brain does not fully divide when the infant is in the womb. When it comes to the how common Holoprosencephaly, only 1 in 10,000 births in the United States has it. And it has been found out that 1 out of 250 embryos aborted worldwide have had Holoprosencephaly. It happens most in mothers with maternal diabetes mellitus. It can also come from mothers that use alcohol, retinoic acid, aspirin, misoprostol, cholesterol-lowering agents, or smoking while pregnant. (Medscape).There are three different types of HPE (Holoprosencephaly). There is Alobar, Semilobar, and Lobar. Alobar is when the brain is supposed to divide in the womb, it does not at all. With this type of HPE, there is usually more severe facial features. Semilobar is where the brain’s hemisphere has somewhat divided. This creates an intermediate form of the disorder. Lastly, there is the Lobar. The lobar is where there is considerable evidence of separate brain hemispheres. This is the least severe form of HPE. When this happens to the baby, it might have a few problems, but would be normally almost normal. (GARD 2016)This defect was first classified as a brain-malfunction in 1755 by Eller in Germany. Then, in 1839, a Dr. Arellano published a necropsy case on Holoprosencephaly, (León, 2007). Effects When it comes to symptoms, there is many. Some general symptoms that go with HPE would be seizures, hydrocephalus, with is too much cerebrospinal fluid in the brain, as well as neural tube defects, pituitary dysfunction, (too much or little hormones), a short stature, (someone below average height, or less than 3rd or 5th percentile on growth chart), feeding difficulties, instability of body temperature, heart rate and respiration. With all of these, there is also development delay and an intellectual disability. Now with the different type of HPE, there are also different types of effects that come with each one of them. (GARD 2015).With Lobar, it is common for the baby to have a bilateral cleft lip with a median process. They can have closely spaced eyes, a depressed nose, but they also could look fairly normal. When it comes to semilobar, they also have their eyes set close together, a cleft lip in the middle or both sides. But they can also have a cleft palate, abnormally small eyes, or no eyes. A

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