Energy modern era, Sustainable development cannot be achieved without

Energy is considered as a
backbone of any economy and plays a vital role in social and economic
development process of a country. In today’s modern era, Sustainable
development cannot be achieved without entrance to energy. It is to be noted
that energy utilization increases with the level of development (Lesourd,
2001). As access to contemporary energy is fundamental for human development,
it provides substantial improvements to be made in provision of energy to
people and for meeting sustainable development goals (SDGs) and
also promote the living standard of the people (Perkins et
al., 2014). For sustainable
development, provision of energy at affordable cost is very important. Energy
provision should coincide with the social and economic needs of people. The
absence of sustainable energy sources, to the contrary can hamper economic
development. Sustainable development could also be inhibited by modes of energy
generation which leads to environmental (UNDESA,
2001& UNDP, et al. 2000).Additionally, electrification of regions by way of
renewable energy also addresses the global concern concerning major climatic
changes in way of deducting of CO2 emissions (Edenhofer et al., 2011).

Renewable energy has been at the
focal point of consideration since a decade ago for satisfaction of energy
demand, as any normal way to deal with the use of energy has two significant
difficulties i.e., finding suitable substitutes for declining fossil fuel
sources and connecting energy creation to ecological and environmental objectives.
Sunlight based energy is a clean renewable source of energy and is considered
especially appropriate for villages where demand for power is very low (Maurya et al., 2013). 
While fossil fuels reduces with utilization and are viewed as
undesirable from long period point of view. Charge of villages by off-framework
sun powered boards is economically more attainable than arrangement through
extension of national network. (URT-MEM,
2003 & Sasikumar, 2013). Grid
connection and grid expansion to rural
areas where population is little and groups they settled at sizeable distances,
cost of setting down electric power framework is extremely high. That’s why the concept of off- grid PV solar
technology is considered one of the most feasible and reasonable alternate
choice for electrification of rural areas. In
spite of the fact that the up-front initial instalment cost of solar
photovoltaic systems is very high yet being decentralized and off-grid, solar
energy is free of different expenses of input fuel later on. The concerned
authorities in Pakistan could effectively avoid the transmission and
distribution costs in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh and
Baluchistan, and the Thar Desert therefore they are particularly suited for the
usage of solar energy through photovoltaic technology (Khan et al., 2014).

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These days there is a growing trend of Sun light based Home System,
especially in those countries, where an expansive number of rural areas and
families are as yet deprived of the basic facility of energy. Off-grid
solar energy is free of issues, for example, line losses and electricity
robbery due to not having a long power transmission and distribution
lines.  (Singh et al, 2009).

Pakistan is a country which has
enormous potential for renewable energy. It is in one of the highest solar
insulation of the world. Pakistan has the bigger and probably grid-scale
potential of Wind and solar energy production. Being in the sunny belt,
Pakistan has potential for more than 100,000 MW emerging from solar energy
alone. The mean global irradiation falling on the horizontal surface in
Pakistan is around 200–250 watt per square meter a day, with around 1500–3000
sunlight hours in a year. Therefore, under the current conditions, Pakistan is
viewed as perfect for solar energy applications (Khan et al., 2014).

Photovoltaic technology which
basically changes over sun energy into electrical is the most ideal approach to
use solar energy. This innovation is pre-famously suited for areas with small
power necessities and remote area applications. The Photo Voltaic (PV) Sun
powered innovation can be of specific incentive to rural territories if it fulfils
with the demand of energy. Solar electrification in rural areas helped in
raising expectations for everyday comforts and can change the lives of
individuals, enhance wellbeing and education and availability of income from savings that is now used
for health care services. In addition solar security light will lead to lower
incidence of crimes while and Solar
electrification also helped in increasing agricultural and
industrial productivity, raising  the
employment rate which lead to increased income and lower poverty rate and can result to socio-economic development (GNESD, 2007
& Zilles, 2007).

Pakistan electricity demand remained at around 19,405MW
in respect to its existing creation of around 13,575MW
(Times of Islamabad, 2017). Electricity
shortage remains at 5,830 MW in flaming summers. Because of this tremendous gap, individuals
have to face 12 to 20 hours of load shedding
on daily routine in rural areas of Pakistan. There are other three primary energy resources of
Pakistan such as Hydro, oil, and natural gas which are utilized to
accomplish the energy demands of the economy but unfortunately their shortage
badly affected the education; health, agricultural and industrial production;
information Technology sector, higher the electricity prices, increased
unemployment rate, decline trade activities, increase poverty rate and lower
economic growth of Pakistan. Under the UNDP funded “Peace and Advancement Program”, an
action was taken by the organization to infrastructure solar panels on  the top of houses of mosques, schools, educational
institutes from where energy was given
to water pumps, water springs and road lights in KPK. Across 200
villages, 200 watt solar panels
were distributed among 5,800 off network (grid) homes. This
action taken by UNDP was moreover extensive by provincial government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa when the arrangement
“Green Growth Initiative”
was begun in 2014. Closely 450 public schools were also associated with solar
panels (Dawn, 2015& Tribune, 2016). The steps taken by UNDP and government
of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa made demand among the regular citizens for the Sun based
PV innovation. As a result of this alertness, an expansive number of
individuals installed solar
panels at their own cost for fulfilling of their energy requirements. Numerous villages now a day’s take advantages by PV solar
innovation as Photovoltaic solar energy furnishes the general population with best substitute for energy
consumption. In 2015, Sector wise Energy consumption by industries is 43%,
transportation is 29%, domestic is 20%, commercial is 4%, agriculture is 2% and
other government sector is 2%. In 2015, Pakistan’s
current energy mix depends on 68 percent thermal energy, nuclear energy and
hydro energy and only 32 percent from renewable resources like solar and wind.
In 2017, Pakistan electricity generation by sources is 35.2% by oil, 29.9% by
hydel, 29% by natural gas, 5.8% by nuclear and 0.1% by solar. In 2017, Sector wise
Electricity consumption by domestic is 50%, industries is 26%, agriculture is
10%, commercial is 8% and other government sector is 6% (Pakistan
Energy year book, 2015, 2017).

The followings are the factors i.e., price, income (per capita
income), education qualification, availability of electronic goods , sustainability, load shedding, level
of knowledge and awareness, pollution, No. of substitutes available, weather
etc which determines the  adoption
of solar energy. Sustainability is a broad concept which is mostly defined as
serving the needs of the present without compromising the capacity of upcoming
generations to fulfil their own needs and cause no environmental damages.

positive effects of solar energy on national economy are that the solar energy
is very cost efficient. The initial cost of solar panel installation is high
then after solar energy can be formed at almost running cost. This high cost
seems to be a wise investment for future and can save ones money in the long
run by giving low grid electric bills. By utilizing more solar innovation, the
country’s import oil bills will be decreases and will decline the circular
debt, which is the greatest burden on the economy. This solar electricity help
in increasing the education level of people by providing light at night and
also improve health condition of people by providing the solar energy
facilities in hospitals. Solar energy system can created a thousands of jobs at
different levels i.e., from makers to the installer. Thus, in this modern era,
due to all these impacts the country’s economy socially and economically both
will boost up. Some of negative impacts on economy are that initial cost of
solar energy infrastructure is very high and is expensive which is not
affordable by the poor residents. On cloudy day, the output of solar panels
fluctuates due to which the solar based electrical devices would be burns. For
storage of solar energy an acidic batteries will be use but this storage is on
small scale and cannot use for all night and is also too costly and risky.
There is no big market for solar energy like other resources of energy, due to
this lack of market the US government cannot provides incentives. The life time
of solar panel is warranty for about 4 to 5 years. (Matias, 2014).


Currently, Pakistan is facing severe energy crisis
due to high demand for energy, high cost of energy import, high theft rate and
line loss, low generation rate and terrorism, scarcity of water, high
population growth, defective government policies
& political hurdles etc. In addition, energy crisis has, generally,
suffered all sectors of Pakistan’s system ranging from economy to industry,
agriculture to social life, inflation to poverty and it is hampering national
progress in an unexpected way. The utilization of coal and oil is thought to be
one of the primary sources of air pollution and deforestation which causes
serious health problems. Unbalanced priorities, poor management, imperfection
in markets, lack of accountability and ill utilizations of domestic resources
etc can be meant as the reasons for deficiency of energy in Pakistan. Pakistan
wastes a ton of energy, around 15 to 20 percent through poor distribution
structure. Load shedding has grows to be a
regular reality in Pakistan. To
defeat these problems one needs to use alternative energy resources. Other than
coal and different energizes, the Renewable Energy (RE) as
solar energy has gateway to our problems. In
actuality, Renewable Energy (RE) is a perfect, green and never-ending source of
energy discovered everywhere throughout the globe (Awan, 2011).

Pakistan requires a persistent
long-term move toward Renewable Energy (RE) to meet rising demand, as its
dependence on usual fuels can be limited just by building a strong RE base. But
for growing Renewable Energy base, it is vital to know whether the Renewable
energy technologies, for example, solar electrification, is sustainable or not.
This study will make an effort to evaluate the sustainability of solar
electrification and also find out the factors of solar technology in village
Regi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Investigation of sustainability issues
interrelated to off-grid solar electrification in rural areas will help in
filling the prevailing energy access gap.


This study will be
guided by the following research questions:-

How do the level of
income of households, load shedding and weather influence the adoption of solar
technology? To what the extent does the price and availability of substitute
power source influence the use of solar technology in village Regi?  How does the price of solar technology, level
of income of households, level of knowledge and awareness of solar technology,
durability of solar technology and pollution influence the sustainability of solar technology in village


objective of the study is to find out the prevalence solar
electrification explores the factors and
sustainability of solar power. In
light of this, it seeks to

To find out the
influence of level of income of households, load shedding and weather on
adoption of solar technology.

To analyze the effect
of the price and availability of substitute power source on the use of solar

To evaluate the effect
of price of solar technology on sustainability
of solar technology.

To explore the
influence of level of income of households, level of knowledge and awareness of
solar technology, durability of solar technology and pollution on sustainability of solar technology.


There is negative effect of level
of income of households, load shedding and the weather
on the adoption of solar technology.

The price
of solar technology and availability of substitute power source have positive
effect on the use of solar technology.

There is positive effect of price
of solar technology on the sustainability of solar technology.

levels of income of households, level of knowledge and awareness of solar technology,
durability of solar technology and pollution have negative
effect on sustainability of solar technology.


faces enormous
limitations and extreme climatic changes which have led to long hours of load
shedding in the country. Extension of renewable energy
infrastructure in the country, as solar electrification
of villages can be one path for fulfilling the double goal of meeting rural demand
for energy and also creating a path towards investment in clean and perfect
energy. Solar energy can transform the quality of life of people by increasing
income, improve health by reducing the air pollution and improve education and
can lead to socio-economic development. There are various
significances consider with in this study. As a matter of first significance
the study demonstrates that how Photovoltaic solar energy Project instalment in
village Regi has so far benefited its general population and the community at
large. And also, the finding of this study will demonstrates the status and
sense of acceptance of the solar energy project installed in the village Regi
and moreover, also demonstrate how the factors affect the adoption of solar



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