Each the similar sources of complexity found within that

 

Each case study independently
and discussed the sources of complexity found within each dimension contributing
to management issues. Based on the radar diagram, a brief discussion was
presented identifying which dimension would require the most. The purpose of
this chapter is to compare the projects as a whole and analyse the similarities
found between them. Each dimension is presented independently as it has been
throughout the research and includes a table that outlines the similar sources
of complexity found within that dimension on each project. Only sources of
complexity that are found on multiple projects are presented in the tables. The
final section of this chapter presents a radar diagram with all of the projects
included and discusses the complexity of the projects and what type of
management teams would best fit each particular project.

 

 

6.1
Case Study Sources of Complexity Comparisons

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6.1.1 Cost Dimension

 

The cost dimension similarities
are presented in Table 6.1. As shown, the majority of the issues contributing
to cost complexity are found in most of the projects, two of which appear in
all five projects and a few overlap between each other. One of the major
findings in the cost dimension is that all five projects used acceleration of
the schedule for a particular reason increasing the overall costs for the
project. Some of the projects made the decision to accelerate the schedule
based on transit user benefits, while others simply wanted to open the project
faster. One method used by the owners to accelerate the construction was incentives
built into the contract. All but one project noted that the type of contract affected
the way the costs were managed for their projects. Considering that none of the
projects were performed under the traditional methodology and that many of
these owner’s had never attempted a project using a different procurement
method, this finding seems plausible. The other source of complexity found on
all of the projects was the issue of estimates. However, each project did not
have the same estimate issues. The problems found with the estimates were:
conducted with little design completed, outdated, originally performed for a
longer time period, scope change leading to estimate growth, and high estimates
limiting the scope. The other four sources were only found on a few of the
projects. One issue related to estimates is the risk associated with changing
scope seen on two projects. Both of these projects added scope that had to be
coordinated and funded in some manner. Material issues were not a major source
of complexity with the exception of the reconstruction project that physically
could not obtain enough materials, but clauses were built into the contracts
for specific material escalation for the other two of the projects warranting
their discussion. Direct external agency cost risk was prevalent on two of the
projects. The reconstruction project encountered significant utility challenges
and the intermodal project dealt with air, rail, and highway agencies. Both of
these agencies were mentioned under the cost dimension due to the potential
impact negotiations had, or could have had on the cost of the projects. The
last challenge seen on multiple projects was the high focus on cost control.
With the large and sometimes very restrictive budgets, three projects used
resources that were specifically assigned to cost controls.

 

 

Incentives,

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contract type

optimization,

Material

External

Estimate

High

Risk due to

Project

changed cost

acceleration,

agency

focus on

changing

issues

issues

 

methods

transit user

risk

control

Scope

 

 

 

 

 

benefits

 

 

 

 

 

Segment

X

X

 

 

X

 

 

Reconstruction

X

X

X

 

X

X

 

Intermodal

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

 

Table
6.1 – Project Similarities Contributing to Cost Complexity

 

 

6.1.2 Schedule Dimension

 

The schedule dimension
similarities are presented in Table 6.2 below. Relating to the cost dimension
is the tight timeline issue apparent on all five projects. Acceleration was
discussed in the cost dimension and the basis for the acceleration is based on
the ambitious schedules for the studied projects. The expected timelines are
consistent with the use of the alternate delivery methods used for the
projects. Each project participant stated that the timeline was a critical
component adding to the schedule complexity. Considering that the timelines
were accelerated, the external agency risk contributed to the schedule complexity.
Schedule risk was found for each project due to external issues such as utility
coordination, environmental clearances, land acquisition, and inclement
weather. Another source of complexity seen was the type of scheduling
technology utilized. These schedules were monitored and verified for control
and payment purposes on some of the projects. These schedules being used for
control and verification purposes, separate teams designated to schedule
control were used on some of the projects. The last source of complexity seen
was the ability to alter the schedule. One project encountered issues with
acceleration due to payment restrictions while the other stated that the owner
was willing to burn contingency to accelerate the schedule. Both of these issues
had to be managed and monitored within the schedule dimension.

x

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