Design and research is in its initial stages. The

And Development Of Methodologies Using Agile Principles


V.Anitha                                     Dr.C.V.P.R.Prasad

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Associate Prof,Dept of CSE,               Assistant Prof,Dept of CSE,       Prof., & HOD,CSE Dept

MRECW,Hyderabad,India.                 BVRIT, Narsapur,India              MRECW,Hyderabad,India.




As adopting Agile software
development becomes a trend, there is a need for a more structured definition
of what is Agile and what is a high-level of Agile maturity. Traditional
development methodologies rely on documents to record and pass on knowledge
from one specialist to the next. Feedback cycles are, in many cases, too long
or even nonexistent. Agile principles emphasize building working software that
people can get hands on quickly, versus spending a lot of time writing
specifications up front. Agile development focuses on cross functional teams
empowered to make decisions, versus big hierarchies and splitting by
function.There has been a tremendous importance in the field of agile software
development  approaches in the recent
past. This is because of the fastness that agile approaches  bring in the life cycle of software
development. This interest in the field shows that  there are benefits to reap through successful
implementation of agile methods. The field is relatively nascent and research
is in its initial stages. The paper has been carried with the distinct
objectives of examine and gain insights into the current agile methods and
practices, understanding the strengths and weaknesses of agile methods and various
issues of their applicability. To meet the set goals and objectives, we used
both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies.

Keywords: Agile, Agile Maturity





Software development is
an organized thrives to deliver products in faster, better and cheaper ways.
There have been many


studies and suggestion
in improving the development process. Software development is an organized
process that thrives to deliver products in faster, better and cheaper ways.
There have been many studies and suggestion in improving the development
process. Recently, this interest has paved way to a new software development
method called Agile Software Development. To overcome the fast changing
organizational business needs using traditional methods agile methods were
introduced. Agile methods aid in and focus on developing solutions more quickly
and efficiently. Agile methods highlight customer satisfaction by structuring
the development process into iterations where in each iteration produces sizeable
amount of working code and artifacts of interest to customers. Agile software
development (ASD) is a relative new term within software engineering. Agile
processes, or development methods, represent an apparently new approach for
planning and managing software development projects. ASD differs from
traditional approaches as it puts less emphasis on up-front plans and strict
plan-based control and more on mechanisms for change management during the
project. Despite being a new approach, the foundational principles of ASD are
based on some existing principles and theories, both from the field of software
engineering, information systems and others such as production management.
recently the Lean principles and the Agile development philosophy has been
recognized as the source for solutions to these challenges.


The classical way to
organize software development of large systems is the waterfall model, where
the development starts from defining and analyzing the requirements and ends to
operating (or maintaining) the software. Actual coding is only a minor part of
the entire process, whereas there is much emphasis on defining, designing, documentation,
testing and operating (maintaining) the software system.Figure 1 illustrates
the waterfall software development model.

Figure 1. Waterfall
Software Development Model

Agile software
development model based on short iterations and quick releases challenges the waterfall
models having emphasis on design and documentation.


The Agile manifest recaps the


• Individuals and interactions
over processes     

and  tools,

• Working software over


• Customer collaboration over


Responding to change over following a            


Agile is a way
to manage projects. It can be used for virtually anything, but it was founded
in software development. This handbook focuses on agile for software
development, but many of the principles can be expanded to other fields.Agile
breaks down larger projects into small, manageable chunks called iterations. At
the end of each iteration (which generally takes place over a consistent time
interval) something of value is produced. The product produced during each
iteration should be able to be put into the world to gain feedback from users

Waterfall project management, which is strictly sequenced:you don’t start
design until research is done and you don’t start development until the designs
are signed off on; agile has designers,developers and business people working
together simultaneously.


are many different flavors of agile. Ultimately, it is up to your team to come
up with the best process for you. Generally they all follow a short life cycle,
which repeats during each iteration. Scrum projects are broken down into short
iterations (generally 1 – 3 weeks) called sprints. The lifecycle of each sprint
includes is given in figure 2:



2 : Sprint Life Cycle


Stober describes
Scrum as a drastic simplification of project management containing three roles,
three documents and three meetings. As can be seen from Figure 3, in a Scrum
software development project, Product Owner (PO) decides the product backlog,
i.e. the features expected from the software (for the next release), signs off
all deliverables and represents budget and interests of the stakeholders. At the
start of each sprint, the project team decides in a sprint planning meeting,
which items from the product backlog are taken to the sprint backlog as use
cases for the software. This is based on the prioritization by the Product
Owner and teams work estimates and commitments. During each sprint, which
duration is typically two weeks, the team completes the sprint backlog. A daily
short Scrum meeting is held to follow-up the ongoing work and solve rising
issues. Scrum Master (ScM) facilitates issue solving outside the meetings.At
the end of each sprint a sprint review meeting is held to review the sprint
results. Each sprint results in a working increment of the software product.
Sprints are repeated until the product backlog is depleted and the software
release is ready. Releases again are repeated for major software updates.In
this paper I refer principally to Scrum model, when discussing Agile, as it
constitutes a clear and tangible reference model.

3 : Scrum Overview





To be able to
estimate what can get done per sprint and how long the full project will take,
it is necessary to estimate how long each user story will take. Because one of
the major challenges in development is accurately predicting how long things
will take to get done, agile uses relative estimation.Features are rated on a
1, 2 or 3 point scale. More precise estimation is more challenging and ends up
less accurate. It is easy to compare things relatively on a scale of 3. And if
something is particularly challenging that you don’t think it fits within the
“3 point” bucket, it

should be broken
down into smaller features that can each fit into the respective buckets.

There are a
number of ways to handle feature estimation. It can be as simple as just
talking about it or it can be slightly more complex using “planning poker”.It’s
also important to determine the sprint velocity of the team working on the
project. That is how many “points” the team can complete per sprint. This
velocity is averaged over time. And in typical average time value- the more
sprints you do, the estimates and velocity become more and more accurate. That
is to say that in some sprints you may not hit your goal number and other
sprints you may exceed it. Over the course of a standard project, this averages




The Agile
approach aims to nurture organization assets and to support other groups, such
as development teams, within organization. These groups should act in an Agile manner
that reflects the expectations of their customers and the ways in which their
customers work.First and foremost, the Agile values, principles and practices
should help to guide organization rchitecture modeling and documentation
efforts. This is just a good start though. In order to be successful at
organization architecture you need to rethink your overall approach and address
some fundamental issues. These issues are connected in a synergistic manner;
you must address all of them otherwise you will put your effort at risk. Some
of these issues are:


• Focus on people, not technology or     


All of the
arguments over “which model is right”, “which notation is right”, and “which
aradigm is right” are meaningless if you don’t have a viable strategy for
working together effectively. You could create a perfect organization
architecture model but it doesn’t matter if project teams can’t or won’t take advantage
of it.


Keep it simple:

A critical
concept is that organization architecture models and documents just need to be
good enough,they don’t need to be perfect. By keeping organization architecture
artifacts simple you increase the chances that your audience will understand
them, that project teams will actually read them, and that you will be able to
keep them up to date over time. Overly detailed documents might look impressive
sitting on a shelf, but a simple model that project teams actually use is what
your true goal should be.


• Work iteratively and incrementally

organization architects work in an iterative and incremental manner. They don’t
try to  create complete models. Instead
they create models that are just good enough. When they find that their models
are not sufficient they work on them some more. The advantage of this approach
is that they evolve their models incrementally over time, effectively taking a
just-in-time (JIT) model storming approach that enables them to get the models
in the hands of their customers as quickly as possible.




While the need
for architecture in agile development is still being debated, Jan Salvador van
der ven and Jan Bosch  proposed a
framework composed of three subjects: Agile, Architecture, and Axes.

 This framework identifies three axes:


1. The person making
architectural decisions

    in Agile

2. The way in which the

    decisions are communicated

3. Tthe length of the decision
feedback loop

 (how soon the     proposed architecture

    can be implemented)




4 : Agile Framework




implementing organizational wide change requires extra time and high energy
level from the whole organization.By using this approach in software design we
are able to first recognize and then eliminate activities which don’t add value
e.g. partially done work without any guarantee if customer will take it in use,
unnecessary task swapping, waiting, handoffs, faults, etc.This way of working
also implies improved responsiveness through rapid deliveries allowing
customers to delay decisions. This is especially enabled by short feedback
loops and continuous integration. Our motivation behind the change was not only
the current product under development but also to increase the

Scrum framework
is the real source of learning. Only through experiencing it is possible to
express real meaning of how well the new way of working fits into our
situation.As agile development methods are widely utilized by the software
industry, the necessity of architecture related documentation is questioned and
sometimes even recognized as a conflict with agile principles,which encourages
constant requirement changes and promotes simplicity.




1 ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010, Systems
and Software engineering — Architecture Description

2 Jim Highsmith, Agile Project
Management: Creating Innovative Products 2nd Edition

3 IEEE Std 1471, IEEE
Recommended Practice for Architectural Description of Software Intensive Systems,
October 2000.

4 Edition by Nick Rozanski,
Eoin Woods, Software Systems Architecture: Working with Stakeholders Using
Viewpoints and Perspectives, 2nd

5 Manifesto for Agile Software

6 Veli-Pekka Eloranta and Kai
Koskimies, Lightweight Architecture Knowledge Management for Agile Software Development,
Tampere University of Technology, Tampere,Finland

7 SAFe Scale Agile,  Communities of

8 Jan Salvador van der ven, and
Jan Bosch, Architecture Decisions: Who, How, and When?, Factlink, Groningen,
The Netherlands, Chalmers University of Technology,Gothenburg, Sweden

9 Muhammad Ali Babar, Making
Software Architecture and Agile Approaches Work Together: Foundations and Approaches,
The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA,Australia Int’l Conf. Software Eng.
Research and Practice | SERP’17 | 155 


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