DEFORESTATION: is being exported illegally. It between $10-15 billion

DEFORESTATION:

DEFINATION:

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The permanent destruction
of indigenous forest and woodlands. It is a major problem all over the world
particularly high in tropics. Recent and present deforestation affects mainly
tropical rain forest. As the amount of deforestation increases, the
biodiversity will decrease. Deforestation is caused by many factors such as
agriculture expansion, livestock ranching, logging, infrastructure expansion
and many more.

LOGGING IS DIFFERENT FROM
DEFORESTATION:

Logging is normally log
the plant for wood purpose. They will plant back the tree again.

IMPORTANCE OF TROPICAL
RAIN FOREST:

It is a huge store of
carbon. It is a habitat for animal and many plants. It also conserve soil
nutrient. Prevent large scale erosion. It is an estatic value. It is also an
large gene pool of plant resources.

CAUSES:

1)     
Agricultural
Expansion

 The major cause of deforestation is the conversion
of forests into agricultural plantations. 
Driving industrial-scale producers to clear forests are at an alarming
rate because of the increase in global demand for commodities, such as soybeans
and palm oil. In 2008 Guinness World Records, the largest producer of palm oil
in Indonesia, was named the “Fastest Forest Destroyer. The depleted soil is not
able to produce the same biodiversity it was once even when efforts are made to
replenish barren plantations.

2)     
Livestock Ranching

Another contributor of
deforestation is forest clearing for livestock ranching. A top exporter of
beef, has lost an area of forest that is 3/4 the size of Texas in Brazil since
1990. The expanding this kind of deforestation, with the support of governments
such as in Brazil is because of strong global demand for beef.

3)     
Logging

Deforestation is also
caused by logging, including illegal logging. Illegal logging operations
provide short-term income for people whom are living on less than $1 a day in
Indonesia. People who depend on the forest, their livelihood will be destroyed
because of this kind of activity. One of the largest exporters of timber is Indonesia.
About 80% of timber is being exported illegally.  It between $10-15 billion dollars is
estimated that organized criminals will get from illegal logging per year.

4)     
Infrastructure
Expansion

 Deforestation can be caused by road
construction by providing an entryway to previously remote land. The road which
runs from Brazil to Peru, is a concern for conservationists as the 5,404-km
Interoceanic Highway road cuts a strip through the biodiverse Amazon
rainforest. Road expansions will lead to illegal logging and logging, without
permission from authorities the opportunists slash down trees. An influx of
settlers is then attracted when the land is cleared and disturbs the peace that
once reigned the small villages.

EFFECTS:

1)     
Atmospheric

Deforestation is the is
the major contribution to global warming. Deforestation causes the amount of
carbon dioxide increases in the atmosphere. A layer forms in the atmosphere
that traps sun radiation as the amount of carbon dioxide increases in the
atmosphere. Global warming is caused because this radiation gets covered to
heat. It is also known as greenhouse effect. The tress are trigger by
deforestation to releases carbon store. Almost 1.5 billion tons of carbon is
release by tress each year by tropical deforestation as predicted by scientist.

2)     
Biodiversity

It removes or affect the
bases of food web. Removes the habitat of many other species. Causes local
extinction of many other species. Causes local extinction of many other species.
The number of species or individuals decreases. Lower biomass and productivity
per hectare.

The biodiversity decline
as a result of deforestation. This causes many species of living organisms are
becoming extinct. The tropical rain forest contribute eighty percent of the
biodiversity and the forest support the habitat of wild life. The environment and
the biodiversity has degraded because of the removal of tress. We are losing an
average of 137 animal species, plants and insects every day because of rainforest
deforestation. To several endangered species, there is a serious threat.  Almost 90% of predicted extinctions is
estimated will take place within next 40 years.

3)     
Affects carbon and
nitrogen cycle

Causes less
photosynthesis. Less carbon dioxide is removed and more is added into
atmosphere. Decomposing fungi live in association with the roots of tree.

4)     
Soil

Soil lost rate is very
low in such forest. Two metric ton per square kilometre is approximated. Tress
cant bind to the soil together causes soil erosion as a result of
deforestation. Landslide may result if tress are removed from the steep of
slope.

5)     
Hydrological

Deforestation affects the
water cycle in the nature. With the help of roots, trees pull up ground water
and then release the water vapour into the atmosphere. The water vapour content
in the atmosphere will be reduced if tress are reduced. This will result in a
very dry climate. This can also lead to soil erosion which might lead to flood
or landslide. The water quantity in soil, atmosphere, or on the land can be
influence by the absence of tress. This can affect the ecological cycle.

 

 

WAYS TO OVERCOME:

1)     
Use Recycled
Items:

A consumer can purchase many
of recycled items, including shopping bags, toilet paper, books, and notebook
paper in today’s world. People should use recycled products. They must  make a conscious effort not to waste. This will
defiantly reduce the demand for new raw material.

2)     
Farming Practices:

 Deforestation can be stop by rotating crops by
those who plant crops at a farm. Use the same portion of land to plant
different crops. Soil fertility can be maintain by using this method. Hydroponics
and high-yield hybrid crops may be used by farmers which relies on a method of
growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil.

3)     
Cut Back on Palm
Oil:

Amount of trees are cut
down in order to generate the palm oil used in the production of some shampoos,
chocolates, and bread is increasing in Indonesia and Malaysia. This causes the
native orangutans to lose their habitat. You should limit your consumption of
products containing this type of oil and spread awareness.

CONSERVATION OF FORESTS:

1)     
In-situ
conservation

The conservation of
species in their natural habitats. The most appropriate way of conserving
biodiversity. It also conserving the area where population of species exist naturally
is an underlying condition for the conservation of biodiversity.

2)     
Ex-situ
conservation

The preservation of
components of biological diversity outside their natural habitats. It provides
an “insurance policy” against extinction. Maintain domesticated plants which
cannot survive in mature unalded. Provide excellent research opportunities on the
components of biological divertical. Institutions play s central role in public
education and awareness raising by bringing members of the public into contract
with plants and animals they may not normally come in contact with. Example of
method, gene banks (seed banks, sperm, ova banks, field banks), in vitro plant
tissue and microbial culture collections, captive breeding of animals and
artificial propagation of plants with possible reintroduction into world,
collecting living organisms foe zoos, aquarca and botanic gardens for research
and public awareness.

EXAMPLE:

1)     
Deforestation in Bolivia (refer appendix 10)

On the left is June 17,
1975. The middle photo is July 10, 1992. On the right is Aug. 1, 2000. 
NASA describes this area as tropical dry forest, located east of Santa Cruz de
la Sierra, Bolivia.

 

 

2)     
Madagascar

Madagascar is currently
struggling to supply food, adequate sanitation and fresh water, because of the rapidly
increasing population. The country has lost ninety-five percent of its
rainforests, which has led to degradation of water resources, desertification
and soil loss.

3)     
 Ethiopia:

In
the past fifty years, ninety-eight percent of the forested regions of the
country are gone. Fourteen percent alone were lost between 1990 and 2005. (refer
appendix 11)

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