Chapter the 1980s, it provides a meter stick for

Chapter 2


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One hundred female participants and one hundred male
participants were selected randomly from Vehari city in this research (ages
ranging from 25 to 70). All patients were married in this research.


instruments were used to achieve the objectives of the study

Conflict Tactics Scale

            b.       Children Behavior Check list

a. Conflict Tactics Scale

            The Conflict Tactics Scale developed
by Murrary Straus (1979) to explore interfamily conflict and violence. This
instrument has four scales: Parent-Child (Scale 1), Partner-Child (Scale 2),
Parent-Partner (Scale 3), and Partner-Parent (Scale 4). The parent-child and
partner-child conflict scales each have five subscales and the two
parent-partner scales have four subscales each. Scale 2 were used in this

            Number of items versus number of
questions. The 39 items in the CTS2 are designed to be asked about both the
participant and the partner. Thus there are two questions for each item, making
a total of 78 questions. The CTS2 is almost twice as long as the CTSl (39
compared with 19 items or 78 compared with 38 questions).


 Despite that, the administration time for the
CTS2 (10-15 min) is still brief enough to be practical in clinical settings or
for inclusion in epidemiological surveys. The CTS is scored by adding the
midpoints for the response categories chosen by the participant. The midpoints
are the same as the response category numbers for Categories 0, 1, and 2. For
Category 3 (3-5 times) the midpoint is 4, for Category 4 (6-10 times) it is 8,
for Category 5 (1 1-20 times) it is 15, and for Category 6 (More than 20 times
in the past year) we recommend using 25 as the midpoint.

b. Children Behavior checklist

            The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)
by Thomas M. Achenbach. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) is a widely
used caregiver report form identifying problem behavior in children. It is
widely used in both research and clinical practice with youths. It has been
translated into more than 90 languages, and normative data are available
integrating information from multiple societies. Because a core set of the
items have been included in every version of the CBCL since the 1980s, it
provides a meter stick for measuring whether amounts of behavior problems have
changed over time or across societies. This is a helpful complement to other
approaches for looking at rates of mental-health issues, as the definitions of
disorders have changed repeatedly over the same time frame.

            Responses are recorded on a Likert
scale: 0 = Not True, 1 = Somewhat or Sometimes True, 2 = Very True or Often
True. The Child Behavior Checklist exists in two different versions, depending
on the age of the child being referred to. The standard scores are scaled so
that 50 is average for the youth’s age and gender, with a standard deviation of
10 points. Higher scores indicate greater problems.


research was conducted in Vehari city. The participants were asked to
participate in the study . The target sample was informed about the testing benefits
and Informed consent were also conveyed to the research participants. The women
and men were approached individually for data collection.

sampling technique was used and interview method for the administration of the
scales. First the demographic form were administered to a portion of the sample
individually then the interviews  held.

Afterwards the two scales were administered to the sample individually.

All of
the participants volunteered; none were paid or compensated for their
participation. Data were collected in individual sessions, and instructions
were presented in verbal form. The between-participants order of the
presentation of the questionnaires was randomized.


Demographics of patients

Socio-demographic characteristics included in the questionnaire were age,
educational level, marital status, year of marriage, number of children ,and
age of children. Patients were asked to report their experiences of married


 All statistical computation have been done
through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, V-16). Description
analysis, Correlation matrices , regression analysis have been applied.





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