Binocular rivalry (BR) is a perceptual phenomenon that occurs

Binocular rivalry (BR) is a perceptual phenomenon that occurs when two irreconcilableimages are shown, one to each eye, to an observer. The stimuli are too different for the eyes tofuse into a single perceptual image (Alais, 2012). If the incongruous stimuli are presented for along enough period of time, in an attempt to resolve the visual ambiguity, the brain causes oneimage to dominate perception while suppressing the other (Alais, 2012). After a short period ofone image dominating, perception shifts, and the formerly suppressed stimulus dominatesperception (Alais, 2012). Without any change in visual input, visual perception continues toalternate (Alais, 2012). Classically, the two stimuli used for BR are orthogonal, sinusoidalgratings (Said & Heeger, 2013). BR alternations are stochastic and it is therefore unpredictablewhen during the BR trial an individual will experience an alternation (Arnold, Law, & Wallis,2007; Ling, Hubert-Wallander, & Blake, 2010; Pearson & Clifford, 2005). Often with large BRstimuli, the transitions between the stimuli are perceived to occur in a “travelling wave” (Genç,Bergmann, Singer, & Kohler, 2015; Lee, Blake, & Heeger, 2007) During the travelling wave, thenewly dominant stimulus’ percept originates at one location and then spreads in a wave acrossthe visual field until the formerly dominant stimulus is no longer visible (Genç et al., 2015; Leeet al., 2007). Although BR has long been studied, there still remains uncertainty about themechanisms which underlie the phenomenon (Brascamp et al., 2015). Some researchers haveconcluded that the mechanisms underlying BR are also active during day to day vision to resolveambiguity or competing sensory information in normal visual input (Lunghi, Burr, & Morrone,2011; Zadbood, Lee, & Blake, 2011).As mentioned above, during BR, subjects’ perception is changing without any change invisual input. This means that although their eye is being shown a stimulus, the observer is notperceptually aware that stimulus. This has led to BR being characterized as alternationsconscious awareness (e.g. Baker & Cass, 2013; Brascamp, Sohn, Lee, & Blake, 2013; Lee et al.,2007). Consequently, BR has often been used to study the neural correlates of consciousperception as well as unconscious visual processing (Carter & Cavanagh, 2007; van Boxtel, vanEe, & Alais, 2008). Similarly, the role of attention in controlling BR alternations has beeninvestigated since the work of Helmholtz (Alais, 2012). Generally, it has been found that

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