As this is specially required in developing countries in

As Mizra*** reports the frequency and intensity of extreme weather
events and natural disasters are most likely to increase due to the affects of
climate change. Xenarios
et al. discusses that as drought and floods are expected to increase
in frequency due to climate change in Bangladesh so is the sufferings
of the communities if their vulnerability is not measured properly. Assessment
of vulnerability to climate change is an important and needed evaluation tool
to identify and improve adaptation strategies at different geographical scale. The
south of Bangladesh is popular for the problems related to flooding and
salinity intrusion. Vulnerability assessment could use variables such as:
exposure, sensitivity to measure it. The indicators for these variables could
be: demography, agro-economy, infrastructure, bio-physical. These data could be
(or was) collected via literature review, interview, surveys and field visit.Misra,
finds in his/her study based in Africa, that one of the most significant
impacts of the climate change in this continent would be changes in the river
resulting in flood (2014). Misra has also reported that the drainage in Africa
could reduce by seventeen percent. Additionally, desertification and drought
are cause for equal concern (Misra, 2014). It is important to realize that when
the geographical scale becomes larger (i.e. continent context instead of
country context) the effects of climate change also vary from one extreme to
another – from flooding to desertification. This is more reasons to adopt to
proper framework to study vulnerability and adaptation assessmentFF1 . Mirza
points out that this is specially required in developing countries in order to
change the narrative from investing on recovery from disasters (cure) to
investing on building adaptive capacity (prevention). Falkenmark reinforces Mirza’s
idea of low coping capacity being a typical characteristic of developing
countries when it comes to too managing depleting water resources and is a
challenge that needs to be tackled as quickly as possible (1998).  Mirza brings another interesting point by
discussing how developing countries could suffer financially if this shift in
narrative does not occur. Focusing only on recovery from climatic
disasters and financial assistance transfer in this causes would create a
‘debt-spiral’ for developing countries. As always, there are two sides to these
stories. Developing countries require to identify this as a whole new level
risk and re-adjust their focus in capacity building type adaptation to tackle
climate change vulnerability. This gives the added benefit of “reducing
economic, social and human damage.” Hence, for developing countries
incorporating accounting for vulnerability (and its consequential adaptation)
is an essential element to develop “long-term sustainable” national planning.
Similarly, donor agencies require to revise their financial help packages to
ensure that instead of only “investing in recovery operations and
infrastructure development” they allocated resources to increase the capacity
building of developing countries.
            This
part of the discussion shows that understanding the need to put in place (revised)
water resource management plans by considering the affects of climate change on
river bodies is dependent on gathering data. This is the first part of the
problem – collection of data could be difficult. Data collected could be
unreliable due to x y z (Draper). Without data it is not possible to predict or
study how the changing climate is going to affect the river discharge. Without
these studies it is not possible to provide adaptation measures to add to water
management policies. Also because rivers are transboundary, the Ganges-Padma
enter Bangladesh passing several other borders it is important to realize that
water sharing takes place across different jurisdiction. In order to do so, it
is best to study these relationships across borders and at a basin scale.  
                In
a study by Prathumratana, Sthiannopkao and Kim parameters such as the discharge
and temperature and precipitation of the lower Mekong River were compared
(Prathumratana, Sthiannopkao and Kim, 2008). Pearson test was carried out using
the available data and it was found that there was a positive relationship
between discharge and precipitation and temperature (Prathumratana,
Sthiannopkao and Kim, 2008). This result was consistent in all the countries –
Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam – that the lower Mekong River run through
(Prathumratana, Sthiannopkao and Kim, 2008). The data for these study was
collected from the Mekong River Commission (MRC) and shows the importance of institutionally monitoring and taking
care of transboundary rivers.
            Again, a study by Shrestha and
Lohpaisankrit of the Yang River Basin in Thailand has considered the flood
hazard with the current climate change parameters (Shrestha and Lohpaisankrit,
2016). Using various models and data they have come to the conclusion that in
the next one hundred years an additional sixty squared kilometers of the basin
will be flooded (Shrestha and Lohpaisankrit, 2016).They also report that the
basin will have higher minimum and maximum temperature. Yearly rainfall is to
increase in the future and further into the future decrease (Shrestha and
Lohpaisankrit, 2016).

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