Abstract used to collect, create and store data. It

Abstract This paper gives an explicit elaboration of information systems, their evolutionary history, and the evolving trends. Information systems have grown over the years. Many organizations have embraced them and have adopted them into their daily operations. All levels of management have been using information systems to perform their regular duties and tasks. The paper will expound on the various infrastructure that is used together to form an information system that is effective in an organization. It will emphasize on the current trends of information systems. Future trends also are included in the paper.Introduction           An information system is a set of computerized components that are used to collect, create and store data. It is also used to process the data into information and distribute it to the desired destinations. It typically includes five major components: hardware components, software components, the data itself, system users and the procedures of manipulating the data into information (Peppard, 2016). Many organizations, businesses, institutions, and companies have adopted information systems to aid in the smooth running of business activities. Information systems have over time evolved from being tools of work to being competitive advantage tools. However, they may be costly to install and maintain. The cost to have the systems in place is not comparable to the positive impact it usually has on the organization. They have proven to be contributors to growth in companies that have used them to perform their activities. Information systems impact organizations in a right way and many enterprises have adopted them in their operations. Organizations usually have their primary goals and objectives of the operations they indulge in. They may have a strategic plan to improve their intentions by incorporating information systems in their activities. In their urge to grow, many companies have installed various information systems that are aligned with the organizational goals and objectives. It has eased operations and stimulated more output. Business activities have been made fast and more efficient by the use of computer system infrastructure (Cassidy, 2016). The primary activities that companies have incorporated the systems include marketing, supply chain management, customer relationship management, inventory management, payroll management, human resource relationship management, accounting information management, transaction management, record keeping for the whole organization, monitoring of distribution channels, and many other operations. It has proven very profitable to all the agencies.There has been a notable changeover into computerized systems over time. Various information systems have been developed over time to cater for business activities and operations. As mentioned before, these methods have even been used efficiently by companies as a competitive advantage tool. Organizations that have embraced technological development have felt its positive impact on their operations (Peppard, 2016). Managers at all the managerial levels have advocated for the incorporation of these information systems in their companies. All over the world, many institutions have used the evolving information systems to perform their activities.Previously developed management information systems have been upgraded over the years to improve the performance of organizations. Computer system developers have worked tirelessly to come up with customizable informational systems that can be used by a wide range of organizations in their business activities. For instance, supply chain management systems have been customized into supplier relationship management systems. They have been widely used by manufacturers to maintain supplier intimacy and create a suitable environment for business operations. Customer relationship management systems have been incorporated in sales management systems. They have significantly improved interaction between the organizations and their customers (Cassidy, 2 (Laudon, 2016)016). All these systems can notably be appreciated as growth contributors in all types of organizations. This paper will target the various information systems that are being used today to improve the effectiveness of businesses.Evolution of Information Systems As stated before, information systems have grown over time. They began from manual systems that included the use of paper to keep all things in organizations in order. They have notably evolved over the years into computerized systems that are easy to use and more effective than the manual systems. They began from single systems that were developed to perform a single task for the company (Laudon, 2016). They have slowly grown into integrated systems that can perform various business tasks on the same platform.Institutions have installed Enterprise Resource Planning systems to aid in the primary activities they get involved in. An ERP is an integration of many information systems into one single massive system that incorporates the principal business activities. Information relates to each other over the whole system. These systems include operations that are involved in the entire company (Urquhart, 2010). All organizational departments are integrated together hence improving supervision and monitoring of company activities. Information system infrastructure has improved since the appearance of the first computers. They have proven to be useful tools in optimizing and improvement of management activities. System evolution in each specific area has dramatically made their introduction progressive over the years. Information systems were first introduced in the 1960s to deal with accounting management issues. They had however been in use in the previous years as computers strive to evolve. Even the first machines that used vacuum tubes and transistors had the capability that the information systems have today. Businesspeople used them and also scientists to perform tasks that had proven challenging to perform manually (Peppard, 2016). Simple arithmetic problems could be solved using the computers however the results were recorded down on paper.People made use of the computers to exhaustively improve the activities they were indulging in until the 1960s when they were able to use an accounting information system in their businesses.Since specific laws, however, govern accounting management, the software had to be adjusted to cater for all the requirements. The introduction of the accounting management software triggered the presentation of information systems in all various areas of management. Managers saw how effective a software could be in monitoring all accounting information and decided to incorporate information systems companywide (Laudon, 2016). It was in the urge and desire to ease business operations and improve records management in the whole organization.Several information systems were then developed to aid in managing invoices, paying and keeping order records. Such operations were kept stored in the developed information systems. They were all integrated with the already existing accounting management software. This improved productivity, guaranteed safe working time and reduced costs and mistakes. Inventory control systems were developed nearly for all companies. It was a great improvement in the optimization of processes that the companies got involved in.Material Requirement Planning systems were then introduced in the early 1970s. These were effectively used in the monitoring of all materials that were used in the production of a particular commodity. A bill of materials could be prepared, and inventory databases kept. They were major systems in manufacturing industries to monitor the whole process of manufacturing. It notably increased the efficiency of production and supply. This called for its continued use in all the manufacturing companies (Cragg, 1995). All manufacturing costs could also be kept using the systems. They could then be manipulated using the accounting management systems that had been previously introduced. This vitally improved the manufacturing process in the companies that installed them.Material Resource Planning systems were a great contribution to the achievement of outstanding advancements in business operations. These systems, however, seemed to overlook capacity constraints. This led to the introduction of MRP II systems in the 1980s. This newly developed information system infrastructure took into account all management necessities, all material planning and the needed resources and the capacity for manufacturing products. They were focused on the production area. They would, however, integrate themselves in other systems that were being used in other management areas.As the information systems evolved over the years, new functionalities were added every other time. Other areas of management were integrated into the already installed computer systems. Many organizations grew drastically out of the installation and use of various information systems that were being upgraded each time (Peppard, 2016). All the areas seemed to be drifting to the information system environments. They had proven very efficient in performing business operations.With the continued growth and development of information systems, Material Resources Planning II systems gradually evolved to integrate all the levels of management. New functionalities were added to the systems so that other management areas were covered. These areas included human resources, logistics, manufacturing, finance, inventory, distribution, marketing, general management, customer relationship management and much more. This brought up the introduction of Entity Resource Planning concept in the involved companies. Many information systems were now integrated into one single platform where all business activities were kept (Panetto, 2014). A clear relationship among all the databases involved in the business activities was established. It has provided clear interrelationships of information across the whole company.           Advancements in networking technologies has facilitated the proper functioning of information systems. It has been a contributing factor to the integration of systems organization-wide. Networked information systems have led to the rapid developments in the Enterprise Resource Systems that are there today. They have been considered as a consequence of the evolution of many information systems over time. The information systems that have been put in place in the current world aim at improving both the internal and the external environment. They have provisions for users of the system who are in the organization and also those that are from outside. Both internal and external processes are catered for efficiently in the management information systems (Panetto, 2014). This eases all business activities that companies are obligated to perform. Competitive advantage is then achieved gradually as the companies grow. Traditional ERP systems covered all the internal business activities of the company. Activities like accounting, planning, and operations adopted the Enterprise Resource Planning information system and optimized their performance. Integrated information systems for company management were put up to aid in the generation of several benefits of a company. They led to the uniqueness of data, the flow of information through the various processes and improved traceability of company funds and resources. They also acted as analytical tools to aid in the internal analysis of the company involved.           The traditional ERP grew into ERP II with time. The two were notably different. Their process and nature were not similar at all. Traditional ERPs considered operations inside the organization while ERP II systems were developed to aid the company to efficiently interact with its business environment and the generated integration of all functionalities of the company.Current Trends in Information Systems           Information systems have advanced with time into really efficient systems. Their inevitable growth and development has not only led to improved performance of business activities but also has aided in the gaining of competitive advantage. Enterprises that have been in the urge to make use of the systems have grown noticeably. They have improved the systems into artificial intelligence computer systems that can even be used to forecast business performance (Cassidy, 2016). It has been enabled by simulation and modeling techniques that are computed on the computer systems that use information that is stored in the databases.           Some of the major functional advances that have been added in the information systems include customer relationship management, human resource relationship management, business intelligence and electronic commerce. Customers have been enabled to interact with organizations over information systems. They submit their feedback over the systems. The workforce in the companies has been monitored by the use of computerized systems. Payroll systems to generate payments for all the human resource have proved very efficient in maintaining records (Peppard, 2016). Business intelligence has been incorporated into the systems. It includes a functionality where the system can do mathematical operations and present to the user of the system analyzed data in graphs or pie charts. Electronic commerce has been widely used to sell both goods and services. Customers have been able to access products and services on online platforms and make purchases. There also have been technical advancements over time. System developers have introduced open programming to ensure that new ideas on information systems are put into consideration. Object-oriented information has been used effectively to aid in the development of information systems. Organizations have been able to adopt system architecture for their computerized systems.Future trends in information systems are expected. The rapid growth in information system development and programming languages will aid in the future trends. Some functional requirements that may be introduced in the near future may include product lifecycle management, data warehousing, knowledge management systems and balanced scorecard. All these systems will be integrated into one to aid in the growth and development of the systems. The already introduced system functionalities are expected to improve with time. Technical trends that are most likely to be encountered include open software and mobile applications that will be used in m-commerce. Wearables are also expected to be integrated with information systems (Laudon, 2016). Android devices may be developed over time to cater for major management information systems capabilities. It will be a significant development to all organizations that embrace information systems.Conclusion Information systems have proven to be an efficient tool in the conducting of business activities. Company management has been improved over time through the use of information systems. All the levels of management have embraced computerized information systems since they are more efficient in the performing of business activities. Businesses have adopted the systems to gain a competitive advantage in their areas of specialization. It is therefore recommended that all organizations embrace information systems in performing of all business activities.ReferencesCassidy, A. (2016). A practical guide to information systems strategic planning.CRC pressCragg, P. B. (1995). The evolution of information systems in small firms. . Information & Management, 1-8.Laudon, K. C. (2016). Management information system. . Pearson Education India.

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