1. and discussed in detail in how working centrifugal

1. Abstract

Many type of pump can be used to pumping fluid. Centrifugal
pump can pumped fluid in pipe this assignment define the pump and some type of
pump, then discussed the application and advantage of pumps and what is
important to choose the type of pump and using for working .some type are
described in the table and have their application. And what is what is
different between single stage pump and multistage pump, next describe the
centrifugal pump in detail, and define some type of centrifugal pump, and how
working the centrifugal pump and discussed about history of centrifugal pump.
Choosing the type of centrifugal pump for working because centrifugal pump is
can work for long time and have low cost and have low weight when change the
place of pump. Nine type of centrifugal pump have in this assignment and. When
centrifugal pump gives the energy the pump using the energy in two group
kinetic and potential energy and discussed in detail in how working centrifugal
pump.

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Content

1.     
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….1

2.     
Aim……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2

3.     
Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………………2

3.1.           
Type of pump…………………………………………………………………………………………………3

3.2.           
Centrifugal pump………………………………………………………………………………………..…4

3.3.           
Main part of centrifugal
pump……………………………………………………………………….6

3.4.           
History of centrifugal
pump……………………………………………………………………………7

3.5.           
How is centrifugal pump is
work…………………………………………………………………….8

4.     
Discussion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…8

5.     
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…9

6.     
Reference……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…9

 

List of
figure

1.     
Figue1: centrifugal pump…………………………………………………………………………………………..5

2.     
Figure2 main part of centrifugal pump…………………………………………………………………….…6

3.     
Figure3 casing (volute)………………………………………………………………………………………………7

 

List of
table

1.     
 Table 1 Type of
pumps………………………………………………………………………………………….….3

2.     
Table2 type of connecting……………………………………………………………………………………….…8

 

List of
abbreviation

1.      PD…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…3

2.      LNG………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….….4

3.      TDH…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….4

4.      VFD……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4

5.      BEP……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..5

 

2. Aim

The objective of this assignment is to define and known the
centrifugal pump and known the types of the pump and learning how centrifugal
pump is work, then, determine the problem 
of centrifugal pump and solving the problem and what is the advantage of
centrifugal pump and what is the disadvantage of the pump . Given more idea
about centrifugal pump.

 

3. Introduction

Pump is a device by mechanical
action can moves the fluid (liquids or gases), or sometime slurries. In here
can calcified pump into three major groups according to the method they used to
moves fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps.

By some mechanism pump can
operate (typically reciprocating or rotary), and by energy consume to perform
mechanical work by moving the liquid and gas. Pumps operate caused by some
energy source, including manual operation, engines, wind power or electricity,
can in different size coming, from microscopic can used for medical application
to large industrial pumps.

Mechanical pump have more
application such as pumping water from well, aquarium filtering, pond filtering
and aeration, and can used in the car industry when the car need to cooling
water and fuel injection the pump insurance it, and used in oil industry for
pumping oil and natural gas, and can used in medical industry, pumps are used
for artificial replacements for body parts, and used for biochemical processes
in developing and manufacturing medicine.

Based on impeller can divided
pump in two type 

§  Single stage pump –contain only one revolving impeller this type
called single stage pump.

§  Double/multi-stage pump – contain two or more revolving
impellers and this type called double or multistage pump.  (Guelich, J.F. and Bolleter, U., 1992) and (Cooper,
P. and Sloteman, D.P., Ingersoll-Dresser Pump Company, 1993)

 

 

 

3.1. Type of pump

In this word have more than hundreds of pump but must choose
the best pump and used for work every pump have own specialty but must choose
the pump can work for more time and have low cost. Table 1.1 show some type of
pump

 

Type of pump

Basic discerption

Application used

advantages

Flow rate ranges

Centrifugal Pumps

General name for pumps with one or more
impellers. Several types and configurations for different uses. See below for
specific centrifugal pump types

All sorts of liquids can be pumps with
centrifugal pumps. Top flow rates of all pump types. Handles fresh or dull
liquids, and liquids with little viscosity. Liquid should not have air or
vapors.

Best pump choice for lesser viscosity (thin)
liquids and great flow rates. No pulses that may be found in some positive
displacement pumps.

5 – 200,000 gpm
——–
19 – 757,080 lpm

Axial Flow Pumps

Axial Flow pumps are a very great flow, little
head type of pump. Too called a propeller pump

Flood dewatering, power plant circulating water
pump, evaporator services, and irrigation.

This pump type is the best kind to achieve very
high flow rate with very little head, a hydraulic requirement wanted for sure
uses such as flood dewatering.

5,000 – 200,000 gpm
——–
18,927 – 757,08 lpm

Positive displacement
pump

A positive displacement (PD) pump is a overall
name for a pump type that does not contain impellers, but rather relies on revolving
or reciprocating parts to straight thrust the liquid in an enclosed volume,
until enough

All types of services in many industries where
positive displacement pumps are favorite above centrifugal pumps due to great
viscosity, presence of fragile

Best choice for greater viscosity services, and
to going liquids gently. Might also be needed for little flow rate, great
pressure combination, or additional use

0.1 – 15,000 gpm
——–
 
.38 – 56,781 lpm

Cryogenic Pumps

Cryogenic pumps are used to handle very little
temperature liquids

Low temperature uses in process industries, LNG
supply, and semiconductor manufacturing.

Able to tolerate the low temperatures found in sure
uses

5 – 1,000 gpm
——–
19 – 3,785 lpm

                                                  

                                                                    Table1.1: type of pump (Lobanoff, V.S. and
Ross, R.R., 2013)

 

Centrifugal pump is a type of
pump can work well and can used in oil industry and can work for more time and have
more advantage for us but have some problem can treat and protected for long
time and discussed in the above in the table .( Lobanoff, V.S. and Ross, R.R.,
2013)

 

3.2. Centrifugal
pump

Centrifugal pump a pump with an impeller or rotor, an
impeller shaft, and a casing, which discharges fluid by centrifugal force.an
electric submersible pump is a centrifugal pump. Or centrifugal pump is a type
of pump can increase the pressure of liquid by a rotodynamic impeller it shown
in figure 1. Centrifugal pumps are commonly used to move liquids through a
piping system in a pipe line to go in far place and have more flowrate. When
the fluid come in the pump impeller during or near to the rotating axis and the
pump is speeded by the impeller. Centrifugal pump because it is a sole (provide
greater flow rate than displacement).  Have some main part and each part have own
responsibility of ability of centrifugal pump, some part shown in figure 2.
Centrifugal pumps are sole since
they can offer great or very great flowrates (much larger than most positive
displacement pumps) and because their flowrate varies significantly with
deviations in the Total Dynamic Head (TDH), of the specific piping system. This
lets the flowrate from centrifugal pumps to be “throttled” greatly
with a humble valve located into the release piping, without causing excessive
pressure accumulation in the piping or needing a pressure relief valve.
Therefore, centrifugal pumps can cover an real wide range of liquid pumping
uses. (Gülich, J.F., 2008)

As defined above, one important benefit of centrifugal pumps
is the ability to “throttle” their flowrates over a wide range.
Throttling centrifugal pumps with a release stopcock is not like
energy-efficient as using a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) to relaxed the
pump/motor speed down, but it is abundant fewer expensive to connect. Of
course, throttling a centrifugal pump’s flowrate has sure limits. They must not
be throttled below the “minimum harmless flowrate” showed by the pump
builder for other than a minute or so; then extreme recirculation can happen
inside the pump casing which can reason excessive heat accrual of the liquid.
In adding, too much “throttling” will reason excessive shaft
refraction which will rise the wear on bearings and seals inside the pump. So,
the ideal flowrate for a centrifugal pump is nearby its “Best Efficiency
Point” (BEP). The BEP can be found on several pump Head-Flowrate Curves
that have Efficiency curves The BEP for a given centrifugal pump typical, speed
and impeller diameter is the point wherever Efficiency is maximum; this
maximizes energy efficiency as well as cover and manner lifetime inside the
pump.

Extra important point is that successively centrifugal pumps
at 1750 RPM motor speeds in place of 3500 RPM motor speeds will decrease garb
on seals and bearings by nearly 4 times and the pump will too be less likely to
cavitate when fewer favorable suction situations (lengthy suction pipes, high
“lifts” from ponds or depths, little supply tank levels, or liquids
with great vapor pressures such as hot water, gasoline, etc.) are involved.
Though, centrifugal pumps running at 1750 RPM require much greater casings and
impellers than those running at 3500 RPM and thus, budget considerably extra
money.  (The centrifugal or roto-dynamic
pump produce a head and a flow by rising the speed of the liquid through the
apparatus thru the help of the revolving vane impeller. Centrifugal pumps
include radial, axial and mixed flow units.

Centrifugal pumps can be classified more as

•          end suction
pumps

•          In-line pumps

•          Double
suction pumps

•          Vertical
multistage pumps

•          Horizontal
multistage pumps

•          Submersible
pumps

•          self-priming
pumps

•          Axial-flow
pumps

•          Regenerative
pumps

              (Lobanoff,
V.S. and Ross, R.R., 2013)

                                        

                                                     

                           Figure1: centrifugal pump. (Lobanoff, V.S.
and Ross, R.R., 2013

 

 

 

3.3. Main part

 Each centrifugal pump
contain hundred part there are some component that practically in every
centrifugal pump has in common. That component can divided in two group the
first is wet end and second is the mechanical end.

·        
Wet end is a many part provide hydraulic performance
of the pump there part is wet end part. Impeller and casing is the two primary
part of wet end.

·        
Mechanical end includes that parts that support the
impeller within the casing. The mechanical end of the pump includes the pump
shaft, sealing, bearings and shaft sleeve.

                       Figure 2: main component of centrifugal pump. (Dong, R., Chu,
S. and Katz, J.,                  1995,
June) 

The definitions of some part

§  Impeller: can
used to increase the kinetic energy to the flow and it is a rotor.

§  Casing (volute):
can work as a pressure contaminant vessel and contain liquid. The volute of a centrifugal pump is
the casing that receives the fluid being pumped by the impeller, slowing in
figure 3.

§  Shaft (rotor):
the torque transmitting by the mechanical component from the motor to impeller
known as shaft (rotor).

§  Shaft (sealing):
helps to prevent the leakage of pumped liquid.

§  Bearing: provide
more motion of shaft (rotor) and helps to reduce friction between the rotating
shaft and the stator. Bearing have more different type there are five different
type:

o  
Plain bearing.

o  
Rolling–element bearing.

o  
Jewel bearing.

o  
Fluid bearing.

o  
Magnetic bearing.

(Dong,
R., Chu, S. and Katz, J., 1995, June)

 

 

                           

                                            Figure3: casing (volute). (Dong, R., Chu, S.
and Katz, J., 1995, June)

3.4. History of centrifugal pump

According to Reti, the Brazilian soldier and historian of
science, the first machine that could be characterized as a centrifugal pump
was a mud lifting machine which appeared as early as 1475 in a treatise by the
Italian Renaissance engineer Francesco di Giorgio Martini.1 True centrifugal
pumps were not developed until the late 17th century, when Denis Papin made one
with straight vanes. The curved vane was introduced by British inventor John
Appold in 1851. Copy from (Gülich, J.F., 2008)

 

 

3.5      
How to work

Mechanical energy changes by centrifugal pump from electric
energy to kinetic energy that the fluid need to transfer, energy consists of
two types of energy group the first one is kinetic energy and the second one is
potential energy, fluid move moved Some of the energy goes into kinetic energy
of, and some into potential energy, (typify by a fluid pressure or by lifting
the fluid against gravity to a higher level. The energy is transfer from the
mechanical rotation of the impeller to the motion and this force can act on
fluid is usually known in terms of centrifugal force,

(Especially in ancient bases carved before the modern idea of
centrifugal force as a fictional power in a rotating reference border was well
spoken. The idea of centrifugal force is not
really essential to label the exploit of the centrifugal pump. In up-to-date centrifugal pump,
greatest of the energy translation is due to the external force that written
impeller edges inform on the fluid. Habitually, some of the energy also
impulses the fluid into a circular motion, and this circular motion can also
convey some energy and increase the pressure at the outlet. The relationship
between these mechanisms was described, with the typical mixed conception of
centrifugal force as known as that time,) and each type of centrifugal pump
have different way to work. About the type of centrifugal pump is divided in two
type the first is vertical centrifugal pump and the Like most pumps, a
centrifugal pumps converts mechanical energy from a motor to energy of a moving
fluid; some of the energy goes into kinetic energy of fluid motion, and some
into potential energy, represented by a fluid pressure or by stimulating the
fluid beside gravity to a height level. The transmission of energy from the
motorized rotation of the impeller to the signal and pressure of the fluid is
generally labelled in terms of centrifugal force,

 Particularly in mature
sources written before the modern concept of centrifugal force as a fictitious
force in a rotating reference frame was well articulated. the concept of centrifugal force is
not actually required to describe the action of the centrifugal pump. In the modern centrifugal pump, most
of the energy conversion is due to the outward force that curved impeller
blades impart on the fluid. Invariably, some of the energy also pushes the fluid
into a circular motion, and this circular motion can also convey some energy
and increase the pressure at the outlet. The relationship between mechanisms
that described in pervious was described, with the characteristic varied start
of centrifugal power as recognized as that time, in an 1859 article on
centrifugal pumps second is multistage centrifugal pump, . (Guelich, J.F. and
Bolleter, U., 1992) and (Cooper, P. and Sloteman, D.P., Ingersoll-Dresser Pump
Company, 1993

 

 

4. Discussing

Type of connection

pressure

series

1.5psi

parallel

0.4psi

                                                               
Table2: type of connection

Centrifugal pump contain some pipe this pipe can connected in
series or connected in parallel when the pump connected in series:

Centrifugal pump in series are used to overawed higher system
head loss than one pump can handle alone. For two identical pumps in series the
head will be double the head of a single pump at the same flow rate. With
constant flowrate the joint head moves from one point in centrifugal pump to another
point. 

If one of the pumps not work, the process point moves along
the system resistance curve from point one to point three. head and flow rate are reduced.

Series operation of single stage pumps is not often
encountered. more often multistage centrifugal pumps are used.

 

Pumps in Parallel – Flow Rate Added

When two or more pumps are prepared in parallel their resulting
performance can show it is ability as shown in table2. Have different pressure
and flowrate.

 Centrifugal pumps in
parallel are used to overcome greater size flows than one pump can handle lone.
For two identical pumps in parallel the flowrate will double (moving from one
to two) compared to a single pump if head is kept constant. In practice the
combined head and volume flow moves along the system curve as indicated from
one to three.

 If one of the pumps in
parallel or series not work, the operation point moves along the system
resistance curve from point 3 to point 1 – the head and flow rate are reduced. (Norsker,
N.H., Barbosa, M.J., Vermuë, M.H. and Wijffels, R.H., 2011)

 5.  Conclusion

As discussed above and see in table centrifugal pump can
connected in parallel and series and any type have different pressure and flow
rate when connected in parallel have low pressure but higher flow rate and in
series have more pressure but lower flow rate.

 

6. Reference

·        
Gülich, J.F., 2008. Centrifugal pumps. Berlin:
Springer.

·        
Lobanoff, V.S. and Ross, R.R., 2013. Centrifugal
pumps: design and application. Elsevier.

·        
Dong, R., Chu, S. and Katz, J., 1995, June. Effect of
modification to tongue and impeller geometry on unsteady flow, pressure
fluctuations and noise in a centrifugal pump. In ASME 1995 International Gas
Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition (pp. V001T01A005-V001T01A005).
American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

·        
Guelich, J.F. and Bolleter, U., 1992. Pressure
pulsations in centrifugal pumps. Journal of vibration and acoustics, 114(2),
pp.272-279.

·        
Cooper, P. and Sloteman, D.P., Ingersoll-Dresser Pump
Company, 1993. Impeller for centrifugal pumps. U.S. Patent 5,192,193.

·        
Norsker, N.H., Barbosa, M.J., Vermuë, M.H. and
Wijffels, R.H., 2011. Microalgal production—a close look at the economics.
Biotechnology advances, 29(1), pp.24-27.

 

 

 

 

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